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The Channel Tunnel and Eurotunnel

About Eurotunnel

Eurotunnel is the car train service running between Folkestone and Calais via the channel tunnel

The fastest method of crossing the channel with your car, the Eurotunnel train travels between the UK and France in just 35 minutes. Eurotunnel crossings are frequent, with up to 3 departures an hour at peak times and with no fuel supplements or luggage restrictions, choosing Eurotunnel is choosing the hassle free way to travel.

The UK Eurotunnel terminal is based near Folkestone with a dedicated motorway exit at junction 11A of the M20. In France, the terminal is based just outside Calais off junction 42 of the A16 motorway. Onboard, passengers stay with their vehicle throughout the channel tunnel crossing in bright, air-conditioned carriages. You can sit back and relax, or get out and stretch your legs.

Since opening in the spring of 1994, the Channel Tunnel - for which Eurotunnel holds the Concession until 2086 - has boosted travel and commerce between the UK and the Continent: to date, it has been the natural choice for 212 million passengers and 196 tonnes of goods*. The reasons for this commercial success are clear: exceptional speed, frequency and safety. It is the only system that enables such a major obstacle as the English Channel to be crossed at high speed, without transshipment and in all weather conditions.
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Eurotunnel loading up with cars for transportation.
 
Eurotunnel exiting the Channel Tunnel
 
inside view of the spacious Eurotunnel
 
Welcome entrance to the Eurotunnel

Eurotunnel complements its inherent strengths with constant attention to quality of service and a proven record of innovation. The leading cross-Channel operator, Eurotunnel has seen its efforts bear fruit over the past three years, with a steady increase in its activity.

Finally, Eurotunnel stands out as the most environmentally friendly cross-Channel transport system. Shuttles and trains using the Tunnel are powered by electricity, restricting carbon emissions to a level well below that of maritime transportation. Eurotunnel remains committed to sustainable development, aiming to build on its green credentials.

* Estimates as at 31 December 2007.

The Tunnels

The Channel Tunnel is the longest undersea tunnel in the world. The section under the sea is 38km long. The three tunnels, each 50km long, were bored at an average 40m below the sea bed, and link Folkestone in Kent to Coquelles in Pas-de-Calais.

Eurotunnel shuttles, Eurostar and national freight trains run in the two single track and single direction tunnels. These are connected to a central service tunnel by cross-passages situated every 375m. The service tunnel allows access to maintenance and emergency rescue teams and serves as a safe haven if passengers need to be evacuated in an incident. The service tunnel is a road tunnel used by electric and diesel-powered vehicles. Air pressure is higher in the service tunnel to prevent the ingress of smoke in case of a fire in one of the rail tunnels.

The two rail tunnels are 7.6m in diameter and 30m apart. Each rail tunnel has a single track, overhead line equipment (catenary) and two walkways (one for maintenance purposes and the other for use in the event of an emergency evacuation and on the side nearest the service tunnel). The walkways are also designed to maintain a shuttle upright and in a straight line of travel in the unlikely event of a derailment.

The service tunnel is 4.8m in diameter and lies between the two rail tunnels 15m away from each of them. In normal operations shuttles use the south tunnel in the France – UK direction, and the north tunnel when travelling from the UK to France.

Two undersea crossovers bring flexibility of operation as trains can pass from one tunnel to the other during night maintenance periods to isolate a section of tunnel.

The track in each rail tunnel has two continuously welded rails laid on pre-cast concrete supports embedded in the concrete track bed.

Channel Tunnel | Eurotunnel   Channel Tunnel | Eurotunnel   Channel Tunnel | Eurotunnel  
Passing through the Channel Tunnel
 
A map showing the route of the Channel Tunnel
 
The British entrance of the Channel Tunnel
 
Boring machines used to drill the Channel Tunnel

Fixed equipment in the tunnels comes under four categories: electricity and catenary, rail track and signaling, mechanical systems and control and communications.

Cooling pipes, fire mains, signalling equipment and cables are fixed to the sides of the tunnels and are fed by cooling plants at Samphire Hoe in the UK and Sangatte in France.

The overhead catenary supplies traction power to the shuttles as well as to other trains using the Tunnel, e.g. Eurostar and international rail freight trains. The catenary is divided into sections, so that maintenance work can be carried out in stages. Electrical power supplying the tunnels, drainage pumps, lighting and the trains, is provided by substations on each side of the Channel. In the event of loss of power from one side, the entire system can be supplied from the other side.

The fixed lighting installations can be switched on from the control centre or manually from within the tunnels. Various fire-protection and detection systems are installed at points along the length of the tunnels.

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The Biggest civil engineering project of the 20th century

In 1999, two internationally renowned groups of civil engineering experts, one in the USA, the other in Europe, named the Channel Tunnel “the greatest infrastructure success of the 20th century”. The European jury placed the San Francisco Golden Gate Bridge in second place, the US Interstate Highway system in third, and then the Empire State Building, the Hoover dam on the Colorado River and the Panama Canal. The entire Eurotunnel transport system is controlled from the RCC (Rail Control Centre). There are two centres, one on each terminal, and each can take turns to take over control of the system. The RCC manages all rail traffic (trains and shuttles) in the tunnels and on the terminals.

The system is in two parts, the Rail Traffic Management (RTM), which controls the rail traffic system, and the Engineering Management System (EMS) which controls the fixed equipment such as ventilation, lighting, power for the catenary, etc.
Although the transport system is automated, controllers are in attendance 24 hours a day, ready to take manual control in the event of technical failure.

All Eurotunnel trains are fitted with vigilance devices and full automatic train protection which minimises the risk of collision in the event of a human error.

After travelling through the tunnel, the through-trains operated by the railway companies then continue their journey on the UK or French rail networks, which are connected to the tunnel tracks at Dollands Moor and Frethun, respectively.

The shuttles operated by Eurotunnel remain within the Eurotunnel system: they travel on a rail loop between the Folkestone and Coquelles terminals, using the south tunnel when going from France to the UK and the north tunnel when going from the UK to France.
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